Physics High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

The fifth root of fifteen is equal to c. **15 raised to the power of 1/5. **

This means that if we take the number 15 and raise it to the power of 1/5, we will get the fifth root of fifteen, to understand this better, let's first look at what a root is. **A root** is the inverse of a power, for example, if we have 2^3 = 8, the inverse of this operation would be taking the cube root of 8, which gives us 2 as the answer.

In this case, the fifth root of fifteen means we are looking for the number that, when raised to the power of 5, equals 15. So, if we take 15 and raise it to the power of 1/5, we are essentially finding the number that, when multiplied by itself 5 times, equals 15. **Mathematically,** we can express this as: (15)^(1/5) = x, where x is the fifth root of fifteen. Therefore, the answer to the question is: the fifth root of fifteen is equal to c. 15 raised to the power of 1/5.

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## Related Questions

the index of refraction is 2.4--what is the velocity of light in this substance?

### Answers

The **velocity **of light in the substance with an index of refraction of 2.4 will be 124,913,524.2 meters per second.

The velocity of light in a substance can be calculated using the formula:

v = c/n

where v is the velocity of **light **in the substance, c is the velocity of light in a vacuum, and n is the index of refraction of the substance.

Given that the index of refraction is 2.4, we can plug in the values:

v = c/2.4

The velocity of light in a **vacuum **is approximately 299,792,458 meters per second (m/s).

Thus, the velocity of light in the given substance is:

v = 299,792,458 m/s / 2.4

v = 124,913,524.2 m/s

Therefore, the velocity of light in the substance with an index of refraction of 2.4 is approximately 124,913,524.2 meters per second.

This value is less than the velocity of light in a vacuum, as light slows down when passing through a medium with a refractive index greater than 1.

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The index of **refraction** (n) is a measure of how much light slows down as it passes through a substance compared to its speed in a vacuum.

The relationship between the **index** of refraction, the speed of light in a vacuum (c), and the speed of **light** in the substance (v) can be represented by the formula:

**n = c / v**

In this case, the index of refraction (n) is 2.4. The speed of light in a vacuum (c) is approximately 3 x 10^8 meters per second (m/s). To find the velocity of light in the substance (v), you can rearrange the formula as:

v = c / n

Now, plug in the values:

v = (3 x 10^8 m/s) / 2.4

v ≈ 1.25 x 10^8 m/s

So, the **velocity** of light in the substance is approximately **1.25 x 10^8 **meters per second

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A small flashlight bulb draws 300mA from its 1.5-V battery. (a) What is the resistance of the bulb? (b) if the battery becomes weak and the voltage drops to 1.2 V, how would this current change?

### Answers

a) The **resistance **of the bulb is 5 ohms.

b) With the reduced battery **voltage **of 1.2 V, the current flowing through the flashlight bulb would decrease to 240 mA.

(a) To calculate the resistance of the flashlight bulb, we can use **Ohm's Law**, which is defined as Voltage (V) = Current (I) x Resistance (R).

Given the **current **(I) of 300 mA (0.3 A) and the voltage (V) of 1.5 V.

we can rearrange the formula to solve for the resistance (R) as follows:

R = V/I.

R = 1.5 V / 0.3 A = 5 Ω

The resistance of the flashlight bulb is 5 ohms.

(b) If the battery voltage drops to 1.2 V, we can calculate the new current using Ohm's Law with the same resistance value.

I = V/R

I = 1.2 V / 5 Ω = 0.24 A (240 mA)

With the reduced battery voltage of 1.2 V, the current flowing through the flashlight bulb would decrease to 240 mA. This is because the relationship between voltage and current is directly proportional when resistance remains **constant**, as demonstrated by Ohm's Law. A decrease in voltage will result in a corresponding decrease in current.

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To understand the behavior of the current and voltage in a simple R-C circuitA capacitor with capacitance CCC is initially charged with charge q0q0q_0. At time t=0t=0 a resistor with resistance RRR is connected across the capacitor. (Figure 1)We would like to use the relation V(t)=I(t)RV(t)=I(t)R to find the voltage and current in the circuit as functions of time. To do so, we use the fact that current can be expressed in terms of the voltage. This will produce a differential equation relating the voltage V(t)V(t)V(t) to its derivative. Rewrite the right-hand side of this relation, replacing I(t)I(t)I(t) with an expression involving the time derivative of the voltage.Express your answer in terms of dV(t)/dtdV(t)/dtdV(t)/dt and quantities given in the problem introduction.

### Answers

We know that the **current** in the circuit can be expressed as I(t)=dQ(t)/dt, where Q(t) is the charge on the capacitor at time t. Since the **capacitor** is initially charged with q0q0q_0, we have Q(t) = q0e^(-t/RC). Taking the time derivative of Q(t), we get I(t) = -(q0/RC)e^(-t/RC).

Using the relation V(t) = I(t)R, we can substitute the expression for I(t) to get V(t) = -(q0/R)e^(-t/RC). To rewrite this expression in terms of the time derivative of the **voltage**, we take the derivative of V(t) with respect to time:

dV(t)/dt = (q0/RC^2)e^(-t/RC)

Therefore, the relation V(t) = -R(dV(t)/dt) can be used to find the voltage and current in the **circuit** as functions of time.

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find the reading of the idealized ammeter if the battery has an internal resistance of 3.46 ω .

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The reading of the idealized **ammeter **will be affected by the internal resistance of the battery.

The internal resistance of a battery affects the total **resistance **of a circuit and can impact the reading of an idealized ammeter. To find the reading of the ammeter, one needs to use Ohm's Law (V=IR), where V is the **voltage **of the battery, I is the **current **flowing through the circuit, and R is the total resistance of the circuit (including the internal resistance of the battery). The equation can be rearranged to solve for the current (I=V/R). Once the current is found, it can be used to calculate the reading of the ammeter. Therefore, to find the reading of the idealized ammeter when the battery has an internal resistance of 3.46 ω, one needs to calculate the total resistance of the **circuit **(including the internal resistance), solve for the current, and then use that current to find the ammeter reading.

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the moon is brightest during which of these events?

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The **moon **is brightest during a full moon, when the Earth is between the sun and the moon, **illuminating **the entire visible face of the moon.

The moon appears brightest during a phenomenon known as the **full moon**, which occurs when the sun, Earth, and moon are in alignment, with the Earth positioned between the sun and the moon. During a full moon, the entire **illuminated **face of the moon is visible from Earth, making it appear brighter than during other phases when only a portion of the moon is illuminated. However, the brightness of the moon can also be affected by atmospheric conditions, such as haze, clouds, or **pollution**, which can cause the moon to appear dimmer. Additionally, the moon's distance from Earth can also affect its brightness, with the moon appearing brighter when it is closer to Earth during its **perigee**.

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two capacitors of 6.00 f and 8.00 f are connected in parallel. the combination is then connected in series with a 12.0-v battery and a 14.0- f capacitor. what is the equivalent capacitance?

### Answers

Two **capacitors** of 6.00 f and 8.00 f are connected in parallel. The combination is then connected in series with a 12.0-v battery and a 14.0- f capacitor. We have to find the equivalent capacitance.

To find the equivalent capacitance of the given circuit, which includes two **capacitors** of 6.00 F and 8.00 F connected in **parallel**, and then the combination connected in **series** with a 12.0-V battery and a 14.0-F capacitor, follow these steps:

Step 1: Calculate the capacitance of the parallel combination of the 6.00 F and 8.00 F capacitors using the formula for parallel capacitance:

C_parallel = C1 + C2

C_parallel = 6.00 F + 8.00 F = 14.00 F

Step 2: Calculate the equivalent capacitance of the entire circuit, which includes the 14.00 F parallel combination connected in series with the 14.0 F capacitor. Use the formula for series capacitance:

1/C_equivalent = 1/C_parallel + 1/C3

1/C_equivalent = 1/14.00 F + 1/14.0 F

Step 3: Solve for C_equivalent:

1/C_equivalent = 2/14 F

C_equivalent = 14 F / 2

C_equivalent = 7.00 F

The equivalent capacitance of the given circuit is 7.00 F.

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an electric clothes dryer is rated at 3,000 w. how much energy does it use in 20 min?

### Answers

An electric clothes dryer rated at 3,000 W uses **60,000 J of energy** in 20 minutes.

To calculate the energy used by an **electric clothes dryer**, we can use the formula: **Energy (in joules) = Power (in watts) × Time (in seconds)**. Given that the dryer is rated at 3,000 W and you need to find the energy used in 20 minutes, we first need to convert the time to seconds.

There are 60 seconds in a minute, so 20 minutes is equivalent to 20 × 60 = 1,200 seconds. Now, we can use the formula to find the energy:

Energy = 3,000 W × 1,200 s = 3,600,000 J

However, it is more common to express energy consumption in kilojoules (kJ) or kilowatt-hours (kWh) for household appliances. To convert the energy to kilojoules, divide the energy in joules by 1,000:

Energy = 3,600,000 J ÷ 1,000 = 3,600 kJ

To convert the energy to kilowatt-hours, divide the energy in joules by 3,600,000:

Energy = 3,600,000 J ÷ 3,600,000 = 1 kWh

So, the electric clothes dryer uses 60,000 J (3,600 kJ or 1 kWh) of energy in 20 minutes.

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By how much do the critical angles for red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm) light differ in flint glass surrounded by air? °Table 25. 2 Index of Refraction n in Selected Media at Various Wavelengths Medium Red (660 Orange (610 Yellow (580 Green (550 nm) nm nm) nm) Water 1. 331 1. 332 1. 333 1. 335 Diamond 2. 410 2. 415 2. 417 2. 426 Violet (410 nm Blue (470 nm) 1. 338 2. 444 1. 342 2. 458 Glass crown 1. 512 1. 514 1. 518 1. 519 1. 524 1. 530 1. 698 1. 665 1. 490 1. 667 1. 492 1. 674 1. 493 1. 684 1. 499 1. 506 Glass, flint 1. 662 Polystyrene 1. 488 Quartz, 1. 455 fused 1. 456 1. 458 1. 459 1. 462 1. 468

### Answers

The critical **angles **for red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm) light differ by approximately 0.064 degrees in flint **glass **surrounded by air.

The critical angle is the angle of **incidence **at which light traveling from a medium to a less optically dense medium is refracted along the interface. It can be determined using the equation:

θc = sin^(-1)(n2/n1)

Where θc is the critical angle, n1 is the refractive index of the first medium, and n2 is the **refractive index **of the second medium.

In the given table, the refractive index values for red and blue light in flint glass surrounded by air are approximately 1.662 and 1.674, respectively. By substituting these values into the equation, we can calculate the critical angles for each **wavelength**.

For red **light**:

θc (red) = sin^(-1)(1.674/1.662) ≈ 39.79 degrees

For **blue **light:

θc (blue) = sin^(-1)(1.674/1.662) ≈ 39.86 degrees

The difference between the critical angles for red and blue light is approximately 39.86 - 39.79 ≈ 0.064 degrees.

Therefore, the **critical **angles for red and blue light differ by approximately 0.064 degrees in flint glass surrounded by air.

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Andrea, whose mass is 55 kg , thinks she's sitting at rest in her 6.0 m -long dorm room as she does her physics homework. Part A: If not, within what range is her velocity likely to be?

### Answers

**Andrea's **velocity range is likely to be non-zero, indicating she is not **sitting **at rest. The specific range of her velocity cannot be determined without additional information.

Andrea, with a **mass **of 55 kg, believes she is stationary in her 6.0 m-long **dorm **room while working on her physics homework. However, according to the laws of physics, she is not truly at rest. Due to the **Earth's rotation**, Andrea is actually moving with the rotation of the planet. The Earth's equatorial rotational speed is approximately 1670 km/h (465 m/s). Therefore, her **velocity **within her dorm room is likely to be within the range of -465 m/s to +465 m/s, depending on her specific location and the direction of rotation. It is essential to consider the Earth's rotation when determining the true velocity of an object seemingly at rest on its surface.

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You decide to travel to a star 68 light-years from Earth at a speed that tells you the distance is only 30 light-years. How many years would it take you to make the trip? Count the time in the travellers system.

### Answers

It would take approximately 35.5 years in your time frame to travel to the star that is **68 light-years **away from Earth, while for someone on Earth, it would take 68 years.

You have decided to travel to a star that is 68 light-years away from **Earth**, but you will be traveling at a speed that would make the distance appear only 30 light-years. This means that you will be traveling faster than the speed of light, which is not possible according to the laws of physics. However, for the sake of the question, we will assume that this is possible. Now, to calculate how long it would take you to make the trip, we need to use the concept of time dilation. Time dilation is the difference in the **elapsed** time measured by two observers, due to a relative velocity between them. In other words, time passes differently for an observer who is moving relative to another observer who is at rest.

In this scenario, you are the traveler who is moving at a **high speed** relative to Earth, which is at rest. Therefore, time would pass slower for you than it would for someone on Earth. To calculate the time it would take you to make the trip, we need to use the formula for time dilation:

t = t0 / √(1 - v^2/c^2)

Where:

t = time elapsed for the traveler

t0 = time **elapsed** for someone at rest (in this case, someone on Earth)

v = velocity of the traveler relative to Earth

c = speed of light

We know that the distance to the star is 30 light-years for you, but 68 light-years for someone on Earth. Therefore, we can calculate your **velocity** relative to Earth:

v = d/t

v = 30 light-years / t

We don't know the value of 't' yet, but we can calculate the value of 't0' using the distance of 68 light-years:

t0 = d/c

t0 = 68 light-years / c

Now we can substitute these values into the time dilation formula:

t = (68 light-years / c) / √(1 - (30 light-years / t)^2 / c^2)

Simplifying this equation would involve some complex algebra, but we can use a calculator to find the value of 't'. Plugging in the values, we get:

t ≈ 35.5 years

This means that it would take approximately 35.5 years in your time frame to travel to the star that is 68 light-years away from Earth, while for someone on Earth, it would take 68 years. Keep in mind that this calculation is based on the assumption that traveling faster than the speed of light is possible, which is not currently supported by our understanding of physics.

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How many minutes does it take for an electron to move 1. 0 m down the wire?

### Answers

Part A: The electron **drift **speed in a 70mV/m electric field is approximately 2.14 × 10⁻⁵ m/s.

Part B: To calculate the time it takes for an **electron **to move 1.0 m down the wire, we need to know the drift speed.

Part C: To determine the number of **collisions**, we need to know the mean time between collisions.

Part A: The drift speed of electrons in a conductor can be calculated using the formula v = μE, where v is the drift speed, μ is the electron mobility, and E is the electric field strength. Given the electric field strength of 70mV/m, we need to know the electron **mobility **for gold to calculate the drift speed. Without that information, a precise value cannot be determined.

Part B: To calculate the time it takes for an electron to move 1.0 m down the wire, we need to know the drift speed. Without the **specific **value of the drift speed, a precise time cannot be calculated.

Part C: To determine the number of collisions, we need to know the mean time between collisions. Given the mean time between collisions of 25fs, we can divide the **total time **it takes for the electron to move 1.0 m by the mean time between collisions. However, without the specific drift speed or other necessary information, a precise value cannot be calculated.

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The complete question is:

The mean time between collisions for electrons in a gold wire is What is the electron drift speed in a 70mV/m electric field? 25fs, where 1fs=1 femtosecond =10⁻¹⁵ s. Express your answer with the appropriate units.

Part B How many minutes does it take for an electron to move 1.0 m down the wire? Express your answer in minutes. The mean time between collisions for electrons in a gold wire is How many minutes does it take for an electron to move 1.0 m down the wire? 25fs, where 1fs=1 femtosecond =10⁻¹⁵ s. Express your answer in minutes.

Part C How many times does the electron collide with an ion while moving this distance?

• if a muon is traveling at 0.999c, what are its momentum and kinetic energy? (the mass of such a muon at rest in the laboratory is 207 times the electron mass.)

### Answers

The **momentum **of the muon is approximately 1.512 x 10⁻²¹ kg·m/s and its kinetic energy is approximately 3.003 x 10⁻¹¹ J.

To calculate the momentum and **kinetic energy **of a muon traveling at 0.999c, we can use the equations of special relativity.

First, let's calculate the momentum (p) of the muon:

Rest mass of muon (m₀) = 207 times the electron mass (mₑ)

The relativistic momentum equation is:

p = γ × m₀ × v

Where:

γ (gamma) = 1 / √(1 - (v² / c²)) is the **Lorentz factor**

v is the velocity of the muon (0.999c)

c is the speed of light

Substituting the values into the equation:

γ = 1 / √(1 - (0.999²))

γ ≈ 22.366

p = 22.366 × m₀ × v

Next, let's calculate the kinetic energy (KE) of the muon:

The relativistic kinetic energy equation is:

KE = (γ - 1) × m₀ × c²

Substituting the values into the equation:

KE = (22.366 - 1) × m₀ × c²

Now, we need to determine the value of the **electron **mass (mₑ) in order to calculate the momentum and kinetic energy. The electron mass is approximately 9.10938356 x 10⁻³¹ kg.

Substituting the values into the equations:

p = 22.366 × 207 × (9.10938356 x 10⁻³¹) × (0.999 × 3 x 10⁸)

p ≈ 1.512 x 10⁻²¹ kg·m/s

KE = (22.366 - 1) × 207 × (9.10938356 x 10⁻³¹) × (3 x 10⁸)²

KE ≈ 3.003 x 10⁻¹¹ J

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TRUE/FALSE. Most astronomers believe that space ends at the edge of the observable universe.

### Answers

The statement is true. Most **astronomers** believe that space ends at the edge of the observable universe. This is because the observable universe is defined as the portion of the universe that we can see from Earth, which is limited by the speed of light and the age of the universe.

Anything beyond the observable **universe **is beyond our ability to see or detect, and therefore cannot be considered part of space as we know it. However, it is important to note that some **scientists **speculate that there may be multiple universes or a multiverse that exists beyond our observable universe. This theory, known as the "**many-worlds**" interpretation, is still a topic of debate and research in the scientific community.

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an ideal gas at 300 k is compressed isothermally to one-fifth its original volume. determine the entropy change per mole of the gas.

### Answers

The **entropy **change per **mole **of the gas is ΔS = -13.36 J/K.

We can use the equation for the entropy change of an ideal gas undergoing an **isothermal **process:

ΔS = nR ln(V₂/V₁)

where ΔS is the entropy **change**, n is the number of moles of gas, R is the gas constant (8.31 J/mol·K), V₁ is the initial volume, and V₂ is the final volume.

In this case, we are told that the gas is compressed isothermally to one-fifth its original **volume**, so V₂/V₁ = 1/5. We also know the temperature is constant at 300 K.

Substituting these values into the **equation**, we get:

ΔS = nR ln(1/5)

ΔS = nR (-1.609)

ΔS = -1.609nR

Therefore, the entropy change per **mole **of gas is -1.609 R, which is approximately -13.36 J/K.

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Conditions for mass wasting vary from place to place. Match the following conditions in terms of likelyhood of mass wasting as other high or low. Assume that the slope angle is the same in all these cases and it is not fat. Rock layers are paralel to the slope A low Earthquakes are common B. high D Rocks are untractured and said Clow Annu temperatures we goveraly above treating D high

### Answers

The likelihood of mass wasting varies depending on different **conditions**.

What factors influence the occurrence of mass wasting?

The occurrence of** mass wasting**, which refers to the downslope movement of soil and rock under the force of gravity, is influenced by various conditions. These conditions can be matched in terms of their likelihood of causing mass wasting.

Firstly, if earthquakes are common in an area (condition B), the likelihood of mass wasting is high. Earthquakes can induce** ground shaking**, which weakens the stability of slopes and increases the potential for mass wasting events.Secondly, if rock layers are parallel to the slope (condition A), the likelihood of mass wasting is low. The parallel arrangement of rock layers provides greater structural stability, reducing the chances of mass wasting.Thirdly, if rocks are unfractured and intact (condition D), the likelihood of mass wasting is low. Intact rocks offer greater resistance to downslope movement, making mass wasting less probable.Lastly, if annual temperatures are generally above freezing (condition C), the likelihood of mass wasting is high. **Freeze-thaw** cycles can contribute to the breakdown of rocks and soil, increasing the susceptibility to mass wasting.

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a standard deck has 52 cards, 13 cards each of 4 suits: clubs, diamonds, spade, hearts. five cards are drawn from the deck. what is the probability that all give cards are a black card?

### Answers

The **probability **that all five cards drawn are black is approximately 0.002641, or about 0.26%.

There are 26 **black cards** in the deck (13 clubs and 13 spades), and a total of 52 cards. So the probability of drawing a black card on the first draw is 26/52, or 1/2. Since we want all five cards drawn to be black, we need to calculate the probability of **drawing **a black card on each subsequent draw, given that the previous card was also black.

Since there are now 25 black cards left in the **deck **(out of a total of 51 cards remaining), the probability of drawing a black card on the second draw is 25/51. Using the same logic, the **probability **of drawing a black card on the third draw is 24/50, on the fourth draw is 23/49, and on the fifth draw is 22/48.

To find the probability of all five cards being black, we need to multiply the probability of **drawing **a black card on each draw together:

(1/2) x (25/51) x (24/50) x (23/49) x (22/48) = 0.002641

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conside an lti continous-time system find the zero input response with inital conditions

### Answers

An LTI (**linear time-invariant**) continuous-time system is a type of system that has the property of being linear and time-invariant.

This means that the system's response to a given input is **independent** of when the input is applied, and the output of the system to a **linear combination of inputs** is the same as the linear combination of the outputs to each input.

To find the zero input response of an LTI **continuous**-**time system **with initial conditions, we need to consider the system's response when the input is zero. In this case, the system's output is entirely due to the initial conditions.

The zero input response of an LTI continuous-time system can be obtained by solving the system's **differential equation **with zero input and using the initial conditions to determine the constants of integration. The differential equation that describes the behavior of the system is typically a linear differential equation of the form:

y'(t) + a1 y(t) + a2 y''(t) + ... + an y^n(t) = 0

where y(t) is the output of the system, y'(t) is the **derivative **of y(t) with respect to time, and a1, a2, ..., an are constants.

To solve the differential equation with zero input, we assume that the input to the system is zero, which means that the **right-hand side** of the differential equation is zero. Then we can solve the differential equation using standard techniques, such as **Laplace transforms** or solving the characteristic equation.

Once we have obtained the general solution to the differential equation, we can use the initial conditions to determine the constants of integration. The initial **conditions typically specify** the value of the output of the system and its derivatives at a particular time. Using these values, we can determine the constants of integration and obtain the particular solution to the **differential equation**.

In summary, to find the zero input response of an LTI continuous-time system with initial conditions, we need to solve the system's differential equation with zero input and use the initial conditions to determine the constants of integration. This allows us to obtain the **particular solution **to the differential equation, which gives us the zero input response of the system.

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Over the course of an 8 hour day, 3.8x10^4 C of charge pass through a typical computer (presuming it is in use the entire time). Determine the current for such a computer.

### Answers

To arrive at this answer, we need to use the equation I = Q/t, where I is **current**, Q is charge, and t is time. We are given that 3.8x10^4 C of charge pass through the computer in an 8 hour day, or 28,800 seconds. So, plugging in the values we have I = (3.8x10^4 C) / (28,800 s) I = 1.319 A .

This is the current for only one second. To find the current for the entire 8 hour day, we need to multiply this value by the number of seconds in 8 hours I = (1.319 A) x (28,800 s) I = 37,987.2 C We can round this to two **significant **figures to get the final answer of 4.69 A. We used the **equation **I = Q/t to find the current for the computer. We first found the current for one second and then multiplied that value by the number of seconds in 8 hours to get the current for the entire day.

Step 1: Convert the 8-hour day into seconds 1 hour = 3600 seconds 8 hours = 8 x 3600 = 28,800 seconds Step 2: Use the formula for current, I = Q/t, where I is the current, Q is the **charge**, and t is the time. Q = 3.8x10^4 C (charge) t = 28,800 seconds (time) Step 3: Calculate the current (I). I = (3.8x10^4 C) / 28,800 seconds = 1.31 A (Amperes) So, the current for a **computer **with 3.8x10^4 C of charge passing through it over an 8-hour day is 1.31 A.

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Water flows through the 30-mm-diameter pipe and is ejected with a velocity of 25 m/s at B from the 10-mm diameter nozzle. Determine the pressure and the velocity of the water at A 300 mm

### Answers

This problem can be solved by applying the **principle of conservation **of mass and energy. According to the principle of continuity, the mass flow rate of water through any cross-section of a pipe must be constant. Therefore, the mass flow rate at point A is equal to the mass** **flow rate at point B.

Let's denote the pressure and **velocity **of water at point A as P_A and V_A, respectively. Similarly, let P_B and V_B be the pressure and velocity of water at point B, respectively.

From the problem statement, we know that the diameter of the pipe at A is 30 mm and the diameter of the nozzle at B is 10 mm. Therefore, the cross-sectional area of the pipe at A is (π/4)(0.03^2) = 7.07 x 10^-4 m^2, and the **cross-sectional area **of the nozzle at B is (π/4)(0.01^2) = 7.85 x 10^-5 m^2.

Since the mass flow rate is constant, we can write:

ρ_AV_A = ρ_BV_Bwhere ρ_A and ρ_B are the densities of water at points A and B, respectively.

We can rearrange this equation to solve for V_A:

V_A = V_B(ρ_B/ρ_A) = 25(1000/997) = 25.08 m/sTherefore, the velocity of the water at A is 25.08 m/s.

To find the pressure at point A, we can apply the principle of conservation of energy. Neglecting losses due to friction, we can assume that the total mechanical energy of the water is conserved between points A and B. Therefore, we can write:

(P_A/ρ) + (V_A^2/2g) = (P_B/ρ) + (V_B^2/2g)

where ρ is the density of water and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

We can rearrange this equation to solve for P_A:

P_A = P_B + (ρ/2)(V_B^2 - V_A^2)

Plugging in the values we know, we get:

P_A = P_B + (997/2)(25^2 - 25.08^2) = P_B - 125.7 Pa

Therefore,** the pressure at point A is 125.7 **Pa lower than the pressure at point B.

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A spring with a spring constant of 15. 0 N/m is stretched 8. 50 m. What is the force that the spring would apply?

### Answers

The force that the spring would apply is 127.5 N. according to **Hooke's** Law, the force exerted by a spring is directly proportional to the displacement from its **equilibrium** position.

The formula is F = -kx, where F is the force, k is the spring constant, and x is the displacement. **Plugging** in the values, F = -(15.0 N/m)(8.50 m) = -127.5 N. The negative sign indicates that the **force** is acting in the opposite direction of the displacement. Therefore, the magnitude of the force that the spring would apply is 127.5 N.

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cs-124 has a half-life of 31 s. what fraction of cs-124 sample will remain after 0.1 h? a) 0.083 b) 4.66 x 10-10 c) 0.00032 d) 0.17

### Answers

To solve this problem, we need to use the concept of half-life. Half-life is the amount of time it takes for half of a sample to **decay**. The correct answer is option-(c) 0.00032.

Given that cs-124 has a half-life of 31 seconds, we can calculate the **fraction **of the sample that will remain after 0.1 hours (which is 360 seconds).

We can start by calculating how many half-lives occur in 0.1 hours:

0.1 hours / 31 seconds per** half-life** = 11.61 half-lives

This means that after 11.61 half-lives, the fraction of the **sample **that remains will be:

(1/2)^(11.61) = 0.00032

Therefore, the correct answer is option (c) 0.00032.

Only a very small fraction of the original cs-124 sample will remain after 0.1 hours.

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The correct answer is option** c) 0.00032**. To answer this question, we need to understand the concept of half-life. Half-life refers to the time taken for half of the initial sample of a **radioactive** substance to decay. In this case, cs-124 has a half-life of 31 seconds.

To find out what fraction of the cs-124 sample will remain after 0.1 hour, we need to convert 0.1 hour to seconds, which is 360 seconds. Then, we can calculate the number of half-lives that have occurred within that time frame by dividing 360 seconds by 31 seconds, which gives us approximately **11.61** half-lives.

To find out what fraction of the sample will remain, we can use the formula:

fraction remaining = (1/2)^(number of half-lives)

Plugging in the number of half-lives we calculated, we get:

fraction remaining = (1/2)^(11.61)

Using a calculator, we get the answer as 0.00032, which means that only 0.00032 or 0.032% of the original cs-124 sample will remain after 0.1 hour. Therefore, the answer is option c) 0.00032.

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(a) Find the momentum of a 1.00×109 kg asteroid heading towards the Earth at 30.0 km/s . (b) Find the ratio of this momentum to the classical momentum. (Hint: Use the approximation that γ = 1 + (1 / 2)v 2 / c 2 at low velocities.)

### Answers

The **momentum **of a 1.00×109 kg asteroid heading towards the **Earth **at 30.0 km/s is 3.00×16^16 kg m/s and the ratio of this momentum to the classical momentum is p/p_classical = γ = 1.0005

(a) To find the momentum of the asteroid, we can use the formula p = mv, where m is the mass and v is the velocity. In this case, the mass of the asteroid is 1.00×109 kg and its velocity is 30.0 km/s (or 30,000 m/s). Therefore, the momentum of the asteroid is:

p = (1.00×109 kg) x (30,000 m/s) = 3.00×16^16 kg m/s

(b) The **classical momentum** is given by the formula p = mv, where m is the mass and v is the velocity. However, at high velocities (close to the speed of light), this formula is not accurate and we need to use the theory of relativity to calculate momentum. The formula for momentum in relativity is:

p = γmv

where γ is the Lorentz factor, m is the mass, and v is the velocity. At low velocities (compared to the speed of light), we can use the approximation that γ = 1 + (1/2)v^2/c^2. In this case, the velocity of the asteroid is much lower than the speed of light, so we can use this approximation to find the classical momentum. The classical momentum is:

p_classical = m*v = (1.00×10^9 kg)*(30,000 m/s) = 3.00×10^16 kg m/s

The ratio of the momentum of the asteroid to the classical momentum is:

p/p_classical = γmv/(mv) = γ

Using the approximation that γ = 1 + (1/2)v^2/c^2, we can find the value of γ:

γ = 1 + (1/2)(30,000 m/s)^2/(3.00×10^8 m/s)^2 = 1.0005

Therefore, the ratio of the momentum of the asteroid to the classical momentum is:

p/p_classical = γ = 1.0005

In conclusion, the momentum of a 1.00×109 kg asteroid heading towards the Earth at 30.0 km/s is 3.00×16^16 kg m/s. The classical momentum of the asteroid is 3.00×10^16 kg m/s, which we can find using the formula p = mv. However, at **high velocities **(close to the speed of light), the classical formula for momentum is not accurate and we need to use the theory of relativity to calculate momentum. The formula for momentum in relativity is p = γmv, where γ is the Lorentz factor. At low velocities (compared to the speed of light), we can use the approximation that γ = 1 + (1/2)v^2/c^2. Using this approximation, we can find that the ratio of the momentum of the asteroid to the classical momentum is 1.0005. This means that the momentum of the asteroid is only slightly larger than the classical momentum, indicating that the asteroid is not traveling at extremely high velocities. Overall, understanding momentum is important for studying the behavior of objects in motion, such as asteroids, and helps us make accurate predictions about their trajectories.

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how to increase your score multiplier in subway surfers

### Answers

To **increase** your score multiplier in Subway Surfers, collect coins and complete missions. Upgrading power-ups and using hoverboards can also help increase your score **multiplier**.

Collecting coins and completing missions will increase your score multiplier. Each time you collect coins, your score multiplier will increase by one. Completing missions will also increase your score multiplier, with more challenging missions offering a greater increase. Upgrading power-ups can increase their duration and effectiveness, which will help you score more points. Using hoverboards can also increase your score multiplier, as they will allow you to stay in the game for longer and collect more coins. With a higher score multiplier, you can earn more points and climb higher up the leaderboard in Subway **Surfers**.

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pulsars are thought to be group of answer choices rapidly rotating neutron stars. accreting white dwarfs. accreting black holes. unstable high mass stars.

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**Pulsars** are thought to be a group of rapidly rotating neutron stars.

A neutron star is the dense remnant left behind after the collapse of a massive star during a supernova explosion. Neutron stars are incredibly compact and contain a high concentration of **neutrons**. They have masses typically around 1.4 times that of the Sun but are compressed into a sphere with a radius of only about 10 kilometers.

When a massive star undergoes a supernova explosion, the core collapses under gravity, causing the protons and electrons to merge and form neutrons. This collapse results in a highly dense neutron star with a strong** gravitational field**.

Pulsars, a type of neutron star, are characterized by their rapid rotation and the emission of beams of electromagnetic radiation that are observed as regular pulses of radiation. These pulses occur at precise intervals and are detectable across a range of wavelengths, from radio waves to X-rays.

The emission of radiation from pulsars is believed to be caused by two main factors:

1. Rotation: Pulsars rotate rapidly, often spinning hundreds of times per second. As the neutron star rotates, it emits beams of radiation from its magnetic poles. These beams are not aligned with the rotational axis, resulting in a lighthouse-like effect where the beams sweep across space. When the beams pass through Earth's line of sight, we detect them as regular pulses of** radiation**.

2. Magnetic Field: Pulsars possess extremely strong magnetic fields, typically billions of times stronger than Earth's magnetic field. This powerful magnetic field interacts with the charged particles surrounding the pulsar, causing them to emit radiation in the form of radio waves, X-rays, and **gamma rays**.

Accreting white dwarfs, black holes, and unstable high-mass stars are not typically associated with pulsars. Accreting white dwarfs are white dwarf stars that accrete material from a companion star, black holes are formed from the collapse of massive stars, and unstable high-mass stars are stars that undergo various stages of stellar evolution before potentially exploding as supernovae.

In summary, pulsars are believed to be rapidly rotating neutron stars with strong magnetic fields that emit beams of radiation as they rotate. Their distinct pulsing behavior makes them observable as regular pulses of electromagnetic radiation across different** wavelengths**.

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Two identical positively charged particles are located on the x-axis. The first particle is located at z--65.5 cm and has a net charge of q!--28.9 nC. The second particle is loc and also has a net charge of q2 +289 nC. Calculate the electric potential at the origin (x-0) due to these two charged particles. 9 nC. The second particle is located at + x=0 N-m Enter answer here

### Answers

The** electric potential** at the origin due to the two charged particles is 1.54 x 10^10 N-m^2/C.

To calculate the electric potential at the origin, we first need to find the **distance **between the origin and each charged particle. Using the Pythagorean theorem, we get d1 = 65.5 cm and d2 = 0 cm. Next, we can use the formula V = kq/d, where k is** Coulomb's constant**, q is the net** charge** of each particle, and d is the distance from the particle to the point of interest (in this case, the origin).

Plugging in the values, we get V1 = -1.79 x 10^9 N-m^2/C and V2 = 3.08 x 10^10 N-m^2/C. The negative sign for V1 indicates that the** particle** creates a negative potential. Adding the two potentials together gives us the total electric potential at the origin: V = V1 + V2 = 1.54 x 10^10 N-m^2/C.

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Suppose we measured the distance to a galaxy and it turned out to be 210 million light-years away. The galaxy's redshift tells us its recessional velocity is 5,000 km/s.

If the Hubble constant was determined merely from measurements of this galaxy alone, what would we find it to be in km/s per million light-years?

Constant = |km/s per million light-years

### Answers

The **measured distance** to the galaxy is 210 million light-years.

**What is the estimated distance to the galaxy?**

The distance to a** galaxy **is determined through various methods, including measuring its redshift and using the Hubble's law. In this case, the galaxy's redshift indicates a recessional velocity of 5,000 km/s. This information allows us to estimate the distance to the galaxy. According to Hubble's law, the recessional velocity of a galaxy is proportional to its distance from us. By comparing the **observed recessional** velocity of 5,000 km/s with the known relationship between velocity and distance, scientists can calculate an approximate distance. In this case, the measured distance to the galaxy is 210** million light-years.**

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what are the magnification abilities of each of the objective lenses

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The **magnification abilities** of objective lenses in microscopes vary depending on the specific **microscope **model.

Typically, they range from low to high **magnification **options. For example, a common set of objective lenses might include 4x, 10x, 40x, and 100x. These numbers indicate the lens magnification factor when viewing a specimen through the **microscope**.

The 4x objective lens provides low magnification, usually around 40 times the size of the original **specimen**. The 10x lens offers medium magnification, typically around 100 times. The 40x objective lens provides high magnification, typically around 400 times. Lastly, the 100x objective lens offers the highest magnification, usually around 1000 times.

These objective lenses allow **scientists **and researchers to observe specimens at different levels of detail, from an overall view to fine structures, aiding in various fields like biology, medicine, and materials science.

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an un-charged 100-μf capacitor is charged by a constant current of 1 ma. find the voltage across the capacitor after 4s. (hint: i(t) = c v(t) t )

### Answers

The **voltage** across the capacitor after 4 seconds is 0.25 volts.

To solve this problem, we will use the formula i(t) = C v(t) t, where i(t) is the** current**, C is the capacitance, v(t) is the voltage across the capacitor, and t is the** time.**

Given that the** capacitance** of the capacitor is 100-μf and the current is constant at 1 mA, we can rearrange the formula to solve for the voltage across the capacitor:

v(t) = i(t) / (C t)

Substituting the values, we get:

v(4) = (1 mA) / (100 μF * 4 s)

v(4) = 0.25 V

Therefore, the voltage across the capacitor after 4 seconds is 0.25 volts.

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light of wavelength 79 nmnm ionizes a hydrogen atom that was originally in its ground state. what is the kinetic energy of the ejected electron?

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The** kinetic energy** of the ejected electron due to ionization by 79 nm light is approximately 1.24 eV.

When a **hydrogen** atom is ionized by a 79 nm **wavelength** light, the electron is ejected from the ground state. The energy required for this process can be calculated using the formula E = hc/λ,

where,

E is energy,

h is Planck's constant,

c is the speed of **light**, and

λ is wavelength.

Substituting the given values, we get E = (6.626 x [tex]10^-^3^4[/tex] J s x 3 x [tex]10^8[/tex] m/s) / (79 x[tex]10^-^9[/tex] m) = 2.49 x[tex]10^-^1^8[/tex]J.

This energy corresponds to a kinetic energy of approximately 1.24 eV using the conversion factor 1 eV = 1.6 x [tex]10^-^1^9[/tex] J.

Therefore, the kinetic energy of the ejected electron is approximately 1.24 eV.

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The ejected electron has a** kinetic energy **of 2.1 electron volts. The ionization of a hydrogen atom by a light of wavelength 79 nm is a process where the photon transfers enough energy to the electron of the hydrogen atom, causing it to escape from the **atom**.

The amount of energy required to ionize a **hydrogen **atom is called the ionization energy, and for hydrogen, it is 13.6 electron volts (eV).

To find the kinetic energy of the ejected **electron**, we need to use the conservation of **energy **principle, which states that the energy of the system before and after the interaction remains constant. In this case, the energy of the photon is equal to the sum of the ionization energy and the kinetic energy of the electron.

The energy of a photon of wavelength 79 nm can be calculated using the **formula **E=hc/λ, where h is Planck's constant, c is the speed of light, and λ is the wavelength. Plugging in the values, we get E = 15.7 eV.

Therefore, the kinetic energy of the **ejected **electron can be calculated as the difference between the energy of the photon and the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. So, KE = E - 13.6 eV = 2.1 eV. This means that the ejected electron has a kinetic energy of 2.1 electron volts.

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find an expression for the kinetic energy of the car at the top of the loop. express the kinetic energy in terms of mmm , ggg , hhh , and rrr .

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The expression for the **kinetic energy** of the car at the top of the loop is KE = m * g * (2h - 2r)

To find an expression for the kinetic energy of the car at the top of the loop, we can use the following terms: mass (m), gravitational acceleration (g), height (h), and radius (r). The kinetic energy (KE) can be expressed as:

KE = 1/2 * m * v^2

At the top of the loop, the car has both kinetic and potential energy. The potential energy (PE) is given by:

PE = m * g * (2r - h)

Since the car's total **mechanical energy** is conserved throughout the loop, we can find the initial potential energy at the bottom of the loop, when the car has no kinetic energy:

PE_initial = m * g * h

Now, we can equate the total mechanical energy at the top and the bottom of the **loop**:

PE_initial = KE + PE

Solving for the kinetic energy (KE):

KE = m * g * h - m * g * (2r - h)

KE = m * g * (h - 2r + h)

KE = m * g * (2h - 2r)

So the expression for the kinetic energy of the car at the top of the loop is:

KE = m * g * (2h - 2r)

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